Britain will travel to Croatia in the Davis Cup World Group play-off in September after defeating the Russians in Coventry without Andy Murray last weekend.
However, Henman, who reached number four in the world, says the rankings show that British men's tennis remains in a rude state.
"The signs are (Andy Murray) will probably play against Croatia so I fancy their chances," Henman told the BBC.
"(But) the fact we haven't got anyone else inside the top 200 in the world is still a bit embarrassing."
Jamie Ward (217th in the world) and Dan Evans (324th) both won their final singles rubber matches against Russia to seal an unlikely 3-2 victory.
Evans in particular is seen as a natural talent but his attitude off the court has often been called into question and he has had his funding cut by the LTA in the past.
When asked if he could see Evans cracking the world's top 100 Henman said: "Not if he carries on with the attitude he has had."
He added: "There's far better players than him in the world. But he has to maximise his potential.
"What is his potential? I don't know, he doesn't know.
"He has to find that out and the only way he can do that is if he commits, he works and gives 100 per cent to his job."
Henman also said that playing away from home against Croatia makes the tie that much tougher.
"It would have been nice to have had a home tie on back of the win over Russia - I guess it depends a little bit on whether Andy Murray plays.
"But when you look at the Davis Cup and the big picture, those are the easy weeks playing in front of your home crowd.
"It's about whether those other guys can produce that for the other 48 weeks of the year. They have got to do it more often and then you can talk about them improving their rankings."