The Otkritie (Open) Bank has paid 1.208 billion roubles ($40.11 million) to put its name on the 44,000-seat arena until the end of 2018.
The stadium, which is due to be open in early 2014 in the north-west of Moscow, will host group matches for the 2017 Confederations Cup and the World Cup the following year.
"Several generations of Spartak players starting from the early 1930s have dreamed of playing in their own stadium. Their dreams are soon to become reality," the club's billionaire owner Leonid Fedun, who has invested more than $500 million of his own money into the project, told reporters at the construction site.
Spartak, the country's most popular and successful club with nine domestic titles between 1992-2001, have not won a trophy since lifting the Russian Cup in 2003.