World Cup - Kellock left out of Scotland squad
World Cup captain Alastair Kellock was not named in the 22 for the match, which is likely to decide who finishes second in Pool B and reaches the quarter-finals, and instead the captaincy will remain with scrum-half Rory Lawson.
Lawson led the side to victory against Georgia in Invercargill in their second match at the tournament, his fourth win in four matches as skipper.
Robinson gave virtually all of his squad a run in the narrow victories over Romania and Georgia but on Thursday recalled full-back Chris Paterson and fly-half Ruaridh Jackson.
"I have picked a team to beat Argentina - the selection is simply about this match and we must view it as another match, while affording our opponents the respect they deserve," Robinson said.
Paterson, one of the most reliable place kickers in Test rugby, said the team's mission was clear as they look to put together six straight victories for the first time since 1990.
"It's going to be an incredibly tight game, a close game, two good sides who often play close games against each other," he told reporters. "So we're looking to win and continue progress through this group."
Tighthead prop and devout Christian Euan Murray, widely considered one of the best scrummagers in the world, was not available for selection because he does not play on Sundays due to his faith.
Lock Richie Gray returns in place of Nathan Hines in the second row and John Barclay has edged out Ross Rennie at openside flanker.
The teams are well acquainted, having met five times since the Argentines beat Scotland in the quarter-finals of the last World Cup on their way to finishing third.
"Of course we can draw confidence from our victories in Tucuman and Mar del Plata last year - just as Argentina will retain happy memories from their win at Murrayfield in 2009," Robinson added.
"I also believe that Argentina - as they have demonstrated already in the last two months - are a better team than we faced on their soil last year."
Scotland's last pool game is in Auckland on October 1 against traditional foes England, who are favourites to win the group having beaten Argentina in their opening match.
Team: 15-Chris Paterson, 14-Max Evans, 13-Nick de Luca, 12-Graeme Morrison, 11-Sean Lamont, 10-Ruaridh Jackson, 9-Rory Lawson (captain), 8-Kelly Brown, 7-John Barclay, 6-Alasdair Strokosch, 5-Jim Hamilton, 4-Richie Gray, 3-Geoff Cross, 2-Ross Ford, 1-Allan Jacobsen.
Replacements: 16-Dougie Hall, 17-Alasdair Dickinson, 18-Nathan Hines, 19-Richie Vernon, 20-Mike Blair, 21-Dan Parks, 22-Simon Danielli.