Adolf Hitler, the German Chancellor, seized the opportunity to promote his belief of racial supremacy. But the supreme athlete of these Games turned out to be Jesse Owens, a black American who won four gold medals.
Some commentators suggested Hitler lavished money on the Games because he fully expected Berlin to host them permanently. He built a new track and field stadium with a 100,000 capacity, six gyms and many small arenas. The first TV pictures from an Olympic Games were beamed to communal halls around Berlin. A Hindenburg airship flew over the city.
A big-budget documentary film, Olympia, was commissioned. Director Leni Riefenstahl was criticised for her Nazi propagandist content, but acclaimed for technical innovations that were years ahead of their time.
There were moves towards a boycott but Avery Brundage, head of the United States Olympic Committee, resisted any attempts to link sport with politics. Spain's absence had rather more to do with its own civil war, which broke out shortly before the start of the Games.
So Berlin welcomed more than 4,000 competitors from 49 countries and can be credited with the introduction of the torch relay, in which more than 3,000 runners carried the flame from Olympia across seven countries, almost 2,000 miles in 10 days.
Such was the level of German domination that the United States failed to top the medals table for the first time since 1908.
The Germans were at their strongest in the equestrian events, which produced a clean sweep of six gold medals. They also won six golds out of nine in gymnastics and five out of seven in rowing.
But in cycling they were edged out by France, for whom Robert Charpentier won three gold medals. In swimming, Japan again dominated, with four gold medals in their total of 11 from a possible 18.
And in athletics the Germans could manage only second, with five gold medals in their total of 16. Five of Finland's 10 athletics medals came in the long distance events, with two more in the 3,000m steeplechase, but led by Owens, the United States delivered 25 athletics medals, including 14 gold.
Various reports suggest that Owens received vital advice from his closest rival, the German Luz Long, prior to beating him in the long jump, that Owens and other black athletes were snubbed by Hitler after their success, and that Jewish runners were dropped from the United States sprint relay team to avoid upsetting the hosts.
There are also conflicting views, but the certainty is that Owens was the star of the 1936 Olympics, and the stadium still displays his name carved in stone.
Possible pointers for the future came in the new event of basketball and in diving. The United States men's basketball gold would be the first of seven in a row; in the women's springboard event, Marjorie Gestring became the youngest ever female Olympic champion at just 13. One for the future — except that there wouldn't be another Olympics for 12 years.