Turner, who will make his first-class debut in the three-day match at Hove, has been playing for Chichester Priory Park as part of a development programme run by Cricket Australia and Hampshire.
The 20-year-old has taken 18 wickets at an average of 40.78 for the Sussex Premier League club this season. He will be one of three spinners in the Australia side, along with Ashton Agar and Nathan Lyon.
Australia captain Michael Clarke will miss the match amid reports that his long-standing back injury flared up after the second Test defeat to England at Lord's.
Vice-captain Brad Haddin, openers Shane Watson and Chris Rogers plus pace bowlers Peter Siddle and Ryan Harris have all been rested, with Ed Cowan to captain the Australia XI.
Mitchell Starc, Jackson Bird and James Faulkner will be all be pressing for a place in the Australia side for the Old Trafford Test after James Pattinson was sidelined with a stress fracture in his lower back.
Turner was a member of the Australia Under-19 team that finished runners-up to India in last year's World Cup. He was one of six Australian Institute Of Sport scholars to be awarded a summer placement in England.
Agar was also on the scheme and he had been playing club cricket at Henley before he was called into the Ashes squad.
Turner linked up with the Australia team for the first Ashes Test in Nottingham, when Agar scored 98 on debut.
Australia team to play Sussex: Cowan (capt), Hughes, Khawaja, Smith, Wade, Faulkner, Agar, Turner, Starc, Lyon, Bird.
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- Ashton Agar