The 31-year-old was sent for treatment after suffering the injury in training.
A statement from the governing body confirmed: "Clarke will continue to be treated and further assessed by Cricket Australia medical staff."
Sri Lanka lead the five-match ODI series 2-1 after game four was washed out in Sydney on Sunday.
Clarke was rested from the first two matches of the series along with opener David Warner and Matthew Wade following Australia's 3-0 whitewash in the sides' Test series. Clarke battled a hamstring complaint through the Melbourne Test after he was forced to retire in Hobart.
Meanwhile, Clarke's predecessor as captain Ricky Ponting has defended Cricket Australia's much-talked about rotation policy, saying it is 'impossible' for fans to expect the country's best players to play all the time.
Ponting - who scored 13,378 runs in a 168-Test career for his country - decided to walk away from the game in November just weeks before his 38th birthday. Speaking to Fox Sports, the Tasmanian stood by the use of rotation by the selectors in recent Test and one-day international fixtures.
"The rotational thing...I'm totally for it," Ponting said. "The people who are making these decisions are making them for the right reasons and they are making them for the betterment, they think, of the team and the individual players there and then at the time.
"Most of the guys in this current team now are playing all three forms of the game. And they are playing IPL (Indian Premier League) and they are playing Champions League (Twenty20 tournament). They are playing a lot of cricket.
"I can understand the public would be a little bit disappointed that our best players aren't playing every game but I really think it's impossible to expect that our best players do play every game."
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