Starc was the latest addition to a long list of injured pacemen during the summer which has forced Cricket Australia to adopt a rotation policy to reduce players' workload.
Pacemen James Pattinson, Peter Siddle, Ben Hilfenhaus and all-rounder Shane Watson have all suffered injuries in the last year forcing them to miss matches for Australia.
CA said Starc's injury was not a serious one and the selectors have called up uncapped fast bowler Kane Richardson as Starc's cover for Adelaide.
"Mitchell Starc had some mild right calf soreness after the match at the MCG last night," CA physiotherapist Alex Kountouris said.
"Whilst we are not majorly concerned about it, we have withdrawn him from the game on Sunday as a precaution.
"He will be reassessed over the next few days and is a possibility to play next weekend's ... matches against Sri Lanka if his symptoms resolve."
Australia lead the five-ODI series 1-0 after a thumping 107-run win in the opening match in Melbourne.
- Sports & Recreation
- Mitchell Starc
- Ben Hilfenhaus
- Peter Siddle
- James Pattinson