The 34-year-old, who scored 770 Championship runs for Yorkshire last season and has also played for Worcestershire, will be available until mid-June after Notts gave opener Alex Hales permission to seek an Indian Premier League contract.
Director of cricket Mick Newell said: " Phil has scored runs consistently for Yorkshire over the past couple of seasons and he is highly regarded within the game for his ability and for his character."
Jaques added: "I've spoken to a few of the Australian players who have played for Nottinghamshire and they all speak very highly of the setup. I've got good memories of playing at Trent Bridge.
"A short-term deal fits nicely for me with having a young family and I look forward to making a contribution."
- Sports & Recreation
- Alex Hales
- Indian Premier League