Both players were omitted from England's 15-man Champions Trophy squad which was named earlier this week but responded magnificently, with Taylor hammering a superb 108 from 102 deliveries as Nottinghamshire made 287 for four after winning the toss.
Patel blasted 95 from 66 deliveries and followed that up by taking three wickets with his left-arm spin as Northants could only muster 204 for eight in reply.
Ravi Bopara, who was controversially included in England's squad for the tournament which gets under way in June, extended his poor run of form in Essex's four-wicket win over Durham at Chester-le-Street.
Bopara conceded 37 runs in seven wicketless overs and was then trapped lbw by Mark Wood having made just 10 from 21 balls as Essex bounced back from defeat to Hampshire in their opener to successfully chase down Durham's 209 for five with six balls to spare.
Somerset began their 40-over campaign with a comprehensive eight-wicket win over Unicorns.
The minnows could only make 183 for eight and Marcus Trescothick getting Somerset's reply off to an awesome start by plundering 87 from 49 balls. Peter Trego was also in fine fettle, with his 75 not out coming off just 38 balls as Somerset raced to their target in 15.3 overs.
Jonny Bairstow's rapid 53 was in vain as Yorkshire fell to a 28-run defeat against Glamorgan at Colwyn Bay.
Liam Dawson and Adam Wheater led Hampshire over the line against Scotland at the Rose Bowl. The competition's defending champions looked to be in some trouble at 130 for five in reply to the Saltires' 192 for seven but Dawson (54 not out) and Wheater (35no) led them home to their second successive victory.
Captain Daryl Mitchell's 107 at the top of the order propelled Worcestershire to a 91-run win against Sussex at Hove.
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