Froome, who carried a 47-second advantage of Simon Spilak of Slovenia after four stages, extended that lead by seven seconds in the time trial, which was won by specialist Tony Martin (Omega Pharma-QuickStep).
Martin's time of 21:07 was 16 seconds clear of Adriano Malori (Lampre-Merida), with Team Sky's Froome 34 seconds off the leading time.
Rui Costa (Movistar) rounded out the overall podium in Switzerland.
The Tour de Romandie is one of the markers of form ahead of the Tour de France. Last year Bradley Wiggins won the race before going on to seal Le Tour, while the year before Cadel Evans of Australia won both events.
Froome, runner-up in last year's Tour after riding as one of champion Wiggins' domestiques, believes he will be the team leader this year in France although that remains to be made clear by the management.
"It has been a really good week for us I am really happy with my condition now in the build-up to the Tour de France," said Froome.
"This week I couldn't have done it without the help of a really strong team around me. Every day since the prologue, they have protected me and kept me at the front of the race. I owe it to them this week.
"Every race I do now is a good test for me, to see exactly where my condition is and what I need to work on. It has been a really good experience for me this week.
"It is definitely a good omen, but the Tour is still two months away and I need to do a lot of hard training before then."
- Sports & Recreation
- Tour de France
- Bradley Wiggins
- Adriano Malori