BMC Racing’s Australian, who had not raced in France since winning the Tour de France last summer, finished fourth in the third and final stage of the two-day race to hold on to his eight-second overall lead.
Team Sky’s Michael Rogers started the final stage level on time with Evans but was eighth on the day, eight seconds off the pace after a late attack from Evans, slipping to third overall.
Evans had set up the win by claiming Saturday's stage two time trial, and the 35-year-old pointed to that victory as being crucial to his overall triumph.
"Yesterday was a good indication and a nice confidence boost," Evans said. "Sometimes things go well and it all comes together. Up until this point, I had trouble bringing things together.
"But I knew to keep working at it and things would come together. It's a good indication, but we have big races still to come."
On the day Evans was helped by his team-mates, Brent Bookwalter, Marco Pinotti and Amael Moinard taking turns to help him fend off challenges from 18 riders, who were all within striking distance of his lead.
"As a team we worked really well today," Evans added. "Today, the young guys started out and I think for them it was an honour to ride in a part of France for the yellow jersey."
Stage winner Pierrick Fedrigo won the four-man sprint finish after Evans and Ag2r-La Mondiale’s Ronaldo Nocentini opened up a gap with 2km to go.
The FDJ-BigMat rider was awarded a 10-second time bonus, elevating him to second overall.
"It’s my first victory wearing the FDJ jersey and I’m delighted," said Fedrigo.
Nocentini was second atop the Col de l‘Ospedale, with Team Sky’s Lars Petter Nordhaug third ahead of Evans.
1. Pierrick Fedrigo, FDJ-BigMat
2. Ronaldo Nocentini, Ag2r-La Mondiale s.t.
3. Lars Petter Nordhaug, Sky s.t.
8. Michael Rogers, Sky +8s
1. Cadel Evans (BMC)
2. Fedrigo +8s
3. Rogers +8s