The attacking midfielder, who helped his country win the soccer gold medal at the 2012 London Games, was last called up for a friendly with Ivory Coast in August.
Fabian's Cruz Azul team mate Rogelio Chavez was picked for the first time by coach Miguel Herrera in an 18-man squad drawn exclusively from the Mexican league.
"I don't know what it feels like to represent the national team so I'm going to give my life to win a place (in the World Cup squad). It's now or never," Chavez told reporters.
Leon's Jose Juan Vazquez and Olympic striker Oribe Peralta of Santos Laguna were unavailable for personal reasons, the Mexican federation said on its website (www.femexfut.com.mx).
Mexico face Cameroon, hosts Brazil and Croatia in Group A at the June 12-July 13 World Cup.
Goalkeepers: Alfredo Talavera (Toluca), Moises Munoz (America)
Defenders: Paul Aguilar, Miguel Layun, Francisco Rodriguez, Juan Carlos Valenzuela (all America), Miguel Angel Ponce (Toluca), Rogelio Chavez (Cruz Azul), Enrique Perez (Atlas), Rafael Marquez (Leon), Jesus Zavala (Monterrey)
Midfielders: Juan Carlos Medina (America), Marco Fabian (Cruz Azul), Carlos Pena, Luis Montes (both Leon)
Forwards: Isaac Brizuela (Toluca), Alan Pulido (UANL Tigres), Raul Jimenez (America)
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