Technology is already being used in the English Premier League and German champions Bayern Munich had called for it to be brought in to the Bundesliga.
"I can announce the clubs of the Bundesliga and the second Bundesliga opted to do without it," DFL president Reinhard Rauball told reporters.
He said half of the top-flight clubs had voted in favour but a two-thirds majority was needed.
In the second division only three of the 18 teams had voted for technology to come in.
"This issue is off the table for now," said Rauball.
Stefan Kiessling was awarded a goal in Bayer Leverkusen's win over Hoffenheim in October even though the ball went in through a hole in the side-netting, an incident that triggered renewed calls for video technology.
German referees had backed the idea of putting a tiny camera on the line in order to avoid human error.
"This was a democratic vote and we have to accept it," said DFL chief executive Christian Seifert on Monday. "But the professionalism of the Bundesliga does not depend on the introduction or not of goalline technology."
The English top-flight became the first domestic league to use technology in August.
Dubbed Goal Decision System (GDS) and developed by the Hawk-Eye company, the system gives referees a ruling within a second, their watch buzzing to tell them when the ball has gone in.
Goalline technology will also be in use at the World Cup in Brazil in June and July.
- Sports & Recreation
- English Premier League
- Reinhard Rauball
- Bayern Munich