The 29-year-old has impressed Magpies boss Chris Kiwomya during pre-season and has been rewarded with a permanent deal at Meadow Lane.
"It's fantastic, I'm really happy to be here because it's a great club and I've been impressed with everything I've seen so far," Fotheringham told the club's official website.
"I've been made to feel very welcome here right from the start and I made my mind up about signing here very easily.
"The thing that really impressed me about the squad is that there's a real togetherness and team spirit, and I believe that bodes well for the future."
He added: "Everything's set up here for us to do well and be in the Championship and that's our main aim."
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- Chris Kiwomya