The pole was Rosberg's second in a row and he was joined at the front by British team mate Lewis Hamilton, the 2008 world champion who took pole in China last month.
Red Bull's triple world champion Sebastian Vettel qualified third with Finland's Kimi Raikkonen alongside for Lotus.
Ferrari's Fernando Alonso, the local favourite at his home race, will start fifth.
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- Lewis Hamilton
- Sebastian Vettel