The Brazilian won the 2011 British F3 title with Carlin before switching to GP2 with DAMS this year.
"I'm so happy to be coming back to Carlin," said Nasr, who tested for Carlin post-season.
"Not only is it the team that I won the British F3 championship with, but it's also a team that I feel very comfortable with."
Carlin ran Max Chilton and Rio Haryanto in GP2 this season, with Chilton winning twice on the way to fourth in the championship.
Team boss Trevor Carlin is sure Nasr will be a title threat in 2013.
"We have had the pleasure of working with Felipe before and we know what he is capable of when he's happy in the car," said Carlin.
"He is an incredibly talented driver and to finish on the podium in his first weekend in the series shows his outright speed and potential.
"In his second season I believe he will be a real contender for the title."
Nasr scored four podiums and finished 10th in the standings during his rookie GP2 campaign, while experienced team-mate Davide Valsecchi won the title.
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