Ferrer has had an excellent season so far, his 24-3 record including three ATP World Tour titles, but last year’s finalist could not get to grips with his opponent’s belligerent play from the back of the court.
Bellucci, the world number 45, was unwavering on serve and blasted the Spaniard off the court with breathtaking power from the behind the baseline.
The Brazilian attacked relentlessly and hammered destructive groundstrokes to leave Ferrer helpless, and it represented a shocking defeat for the fifth seed.
Bellucci will next take on Robin Haase with the Dutchman having overcome Fabio Fognini of Italy 6-4 6-4 in their second-round match.
Seven-time champion Rafael Nadal will next face Kazakhstan qualifier Mikhail Kukushkin, who defeated Italian Filippo Volandri 7-6 2-6 6-2.
Nadal beat Finland's Jarkko Nieminen 6-4 6-3 as the clay-court master got his campaign off to a confident start.
The top seed Novak Djokovic will take on 16th seed Alexandr Dolgopolov, who beat Australian teenager Bernard Tomic 6-2 5-7 6-1, in the third round.
Djokovic defeated Italian Andreas Seppi 6-1 6-4 in comfortable fashion in their second-round clash on Court Central.
Fellow Serb Janko Tipsarevic, the seventh seed, also advanced after beating Spaniard Albert Montanes 6-2 6-3 in one hour 33 minutes.
He will face Frenchman Gilles Simon, who hammered last year's quarter-finalist Federico Gil 6-3 6-0.
Julien Benneteau recovered from a break down in each set to upset 15th seed and last year's semi-finalist Jurgen Melzer 6-4 6-3 to set up a third-round tie with Andy Murray.
Sixth seed Tomas Berdych swept past Marin Cilic 7-6(3) 6-1 in what was a comprehensive victory for the big-serving Czech.
Berdych will next take on Kei Nishikori after the Japanese player beat Paul-Henri Mathieu 6-4 6-2 to reach the last 16.