Senderos arrived from Arsenal in 2010 and has gone on to make almost 50 appearances for the Cottagers.
The Swiss centre-back was due to leave the Premier League club but has now decided to remain until the summer of 2014.
"I've thoroughly enjoyed my time at Fulham so far and I love playing for this club," Senderos said on the club website (www.fulhamfc.com)
"I'm relishing playing first-team football and I'm confident that we can continue our recent good form and end the season strongly."
The 28-year-old, whose career has been interrupted by injuries, has also played for Milan and Everton on loan.
Senderos has been capped 47 times by the Swiss, scoring five times.
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