"It is with a heavy heart that I will have to step away from tennis competition for a short period after being diagnosed with Hodgkin's lymphoma," Duval, 18, said in a statement.
"I received the news after my first round of qualifying at Wimbledon but decided to continue to compete. Being on court provided me with much comfort."
Duval, ranked 114th, beat 29th seed Sorana Cirstea of Romania 6-4 3-6 6-1 in her first-round Wimbledon match.
The diagnosis came after a biopsy taken in England before the tournament, and further tests confirmed the results, her representatives from IMG said in a statement.
The cancer was caught in its early stages and the prognosis was for a full recovery, her representatives added.
Duval's big tennis breakthrough came as a 17-year-old, 298th-ranked qualifier at last year's Open, when she ousted former champion Samantha Stosur of Australia.
"I have complete faith that God will assist me and my family with all that we need, to achieve victory and become stronger from this journey," Duval said. "I intend to put up my best fight and have a full recovery."
- Sports & Recreation
- Sorana Cirstea