Robson showed patches of quality in the match against the former world number one but ultimately produced too many unforced errors to sustain her upset bid.
Wozniacki sealed the victory with a break of serve, but Robson will be cursing herself as she fired two double faults in that final game.
"I love it here. The crowd is always amazing. I love playing on grass and Eastbourne is such a home tournament," Wozniacki told the BBC.
"I think I've been here 10 years in a row. I love it here and I want to come back every year. Laura was serving very well today. She was putting the pressure on me when I was serving too."
It was the second big win for Wozniacki over Robson this month as she also beat the British number one at the French Open and she seemed to be boosted by having her famous boyfriend – golf star Rory McIlroy – watching her from the stands.
Maria Kirilenko ended Elena Baltacha's good run of victories with a three-set win.
Baltacha had won a challenger in Nottingham last week and her first round match at Eastbourne but was defeated by the sixth seeded Russian in a tight contest 4-6 6-4 6-3.
Baltacha, working her way back from a foot injury, will be pleased that she pushed the world number 10 all the way in the hot conditions in East Sussex ahead of Wimbledon next week where she has been awarded a wild card.
She even broke Kirilenko in the first game of the second set but the Russian struck right back before claiming the win.
"If I said to you maybe eight weeks ago that I was going to win Nottingham and come here and lose to Kirilenko, I wouldn't have grumbled. It's a great platform for me to move forward," Baltacha told the BBC.
"She had everything to lose and I knew I had everything to gain. I gave everything I could. I tried hard not to get pushed around, I gave it absolutely everything."
To cap a bad day for British players, Heather Watson was then beaten by Elena Vesnina as she ran out of steam losing 6-1 3-6 6-2 to the unseeded Russian.
Kirlenko will next face Yanina Wickmayer of Belgium who upset former Wimbledon champion and fourth seed Petra Kvitova 3-6 6-4 7-5.
Second seed Li Na also moved into the quarter-finals of the event although the Chinese star didn't even have to play as her opponent Marion Bartoli withdrew with illness. She will next face Vesnina.
In-form American Jamie Hampton is also in the last eight as she followed on her surprised win over top seed Agnieszka Radwanska with a 6-4 7-6(2) win over Hsieh Su-Wei. She will next face Lucie Safarova who beat former US Open champions Samantha Stosur7-6(5) 6-3.
WTA Eastbourne second round results
Ekaterina Makarova (Russia) beat 3-Angelique Kerber (Germany) 6-3 6-4
Elena Vesnina (Russia) beat Heather Watson (Britain) 6-1 3-6 6-2
5-Caroline Wozniacki (Denmark) beat Laura Robson (Britain) 6-4 6-4
Yanina Wickmayer (Belgium) beat 4-Petra Kvitova (Czech Republic) 3-6 6-4 7-5
6-Maria Kirilenko (Russia) beat Elena Baltacha (Britain) 4-6 6-4 6-3
Jamie Hampton (U.S.) beat Hsieh Su-Wei (Taiwan) 6-4 7-6(2)
Lucie Safarova (Czech Republic) beat Samantha Stosur (Australia) 7-6(5) 6-3
2-Li Na (China) beat Marion Bartoli (France)WO
WTA 's-Hertogenbosch second round results
Simona Halep (Romania) beat 1-Roberta Vinci (Italy) 6-0 6-1
2-Dominika Cibulkova (Slovakia) beat Anabel Medina Garrigues (Spain) 2-6 6-4 6-3
4-Kirsten Flipkens (Belgium) beat Michaella Krajicek (Netherlands) 7-6(6) 7-6(3)
Garbine Muguruza Blanco (Spain) beat Lauren Davis (U.S.) 6-2 6-0
Lesia Tsurenko (Ukraine) beat Stefanie Voegele (Switzerland) 6-1 7-6(4)
- Sports & Recreation
- Elena Baltacha
- Elena Vesnina
- Maria Kirilenko
- Laura Robson